The Israel-Palestine Conflict. A Complex Past and Ongoing Struggle

Historical Background

The origins of the israel palestine conflictdate back to the Ottoman Empire of the late 19th- and early 20th-century. In this period, Jews and Arabs both lived in the area and nationalist movements started to appear. Zionism gained momentum in the Jewish community worldwide, as it advocated for a Jewish homeland. At the same moment, Arabs sought self-determination.

Key Events

Balfour Declaration: Issued by the British Government during World War I was the Balfour Declaration. It expressed British support for the “establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish People.” This declaration marked an important moment in conflict history because it set the stage to the Jewish migration from Europe to Palestine.

British Mandate: The League of Nations, after World War I granted Britain the mandate to administer Palestine. In this period, tensions grew between Jews and Arabs, leading sporadic acts of violence.

United Nations Partition Plan: In 1947, The United Nations approved the plan for partitioning Palestine into separate Jewish-Arab states. Jerusalem was to be administered by an international authority. The Jews accepted the plan but the Arabs did not, resulting in the first Arab/Israeli war.

Creation of Israel, 1948: David Ben-Gurion was Israel’s First Prime Minister when he declared Israel’s establishment on May 14,48. This declaration marked a beginning to a long-standing dispute as Arab neighbouring states launched an military intervention.

Six-Day War of 1967: Israel fought an intense war in 1967 against Egypt and Jordan. It captured territory, such as West Bank, East Jerusalem Gaza Strip and Golan Heights. Since 1967, these territories are a major issue.

Oslo Accords: In 1993, the Oslo Accords represented a major breakthrough in history. Israel and Palestine Liberation Organization recognized one another and led to a limited form of self government for Palestinians.

Conflicts that continue to exist

Israel-Palestine Conflict remains unresolved. There are many issues that remain at the core. These are the main issues:

Borders – Disagreements about Israel’s and a future Palestinian State remain an obstacle to peace.

Jerusalem is a hotly contested issue, as both Israelis and Palestinians claim it as their capital.

Refugees. The status and the right of return to Palestine for Palestinian refugees that left or were displace during the conflict, is a complex issue.

Security: Israel, with its long history of conflicting with Arab neighbors, seeks to ensure its own security. Palestinians, meanwhile, demand freedom and autonomy.

Settlements. Israeli settlements complicate a viable Palestinian state.

Political divisions – The Palestinian territories consist of the Hamas ruled Gaza Strip as well as the Fatah governed West Bank. This presents a further challenge to a unified Palestinian leader.